In Vietnam, issues of social security were set up early, with almost working in
agriculture, Vietnamese usually bear many nature calamityies and disasters. Thus the germs of social security was established very early and they were reminded in the folk-songs such as: “the good leaves protect the worn-out leaves”, “You love another people as you love yourself”,etc. Those idioms are show you the community of cohesion. It had a part in adjusting the behaviours in the social and oriented to activities which contain the tenors of social security during the start-up phase. Then Government (from the feudal up to now) progressively build up the detailed policies. There are three main activites in the social security system in Vietnam: social insurance, social relief or social assistance programmes, allowances from public funds. The most outstanding in the activities in the social security in Vietnam is social insurance.
After The Democratic Republic of Vietnam had been founded, the government
promulgated numerous documents in order to offer state employees social insurance including retirement, healthcare, accident, death gratuity pension and social relief, allowances from public funds I can say that: Social Insurance Policies are of high importance and receive a lot of attention from the Party and the Government. In the ninth meeting of the eleventh National Assembly held in June 29th, 2006, some sets of laws had been passed, including the Legislation on Social Insurance No71/2006/QH11 signed by President Nguyen Minh Triet on the Decree No13/2006/LCTN and to be in practice in July 12th, 2006. The legislation, which
contains 11 chapters and 141 clauses, stipulates policies of social insurance, rights and responsibilities of workers, offices, organizations and insured individuals, social insurance funds, social insurance procedures and state management of social insurance. And you can understand that : Social insurance in Vietnam means the guarantee to fully or partially offset a laborer's income that is lost or reduced due to his/her sickness, maternity, labor accident, occupational disease, unemployment, retirement or death, on the basis of his/her contributions to the social insurance fund.
The package of social insurance services is comprehensive and equitable across the
three categories of compulsory, voluntary and non-contributory. For example, health insurance covers outpatient and inpatient services at all levels of health care, laboratory examinations, X-rays, as well as drugs listed as reimbursable. Insured patients are also eligible for health care at private hospitals that have contracts with the health insurance agency. For old age insurance participants have to contribute 16% of the salary or the minimum wage for 20 years. The pension benefit is computed on the basis of an average salary. On retirement, old age insurance will ensure a maximum monthly salary of 75% of their average monthly income. The minimum pension is set equal to the minimum wage
Some Regulations concerning social insurance include:
- Mandatory Social Insurance: Sickness benefit, maternity benefit, work injury and
occupational diseases benefit, retirement pension and survivorship benefit.
- Voluntary Social Insurance: Retirement pension and survivorship benefit.
- Insurance against loss of income due to unemployment: Unemployment benefit,
vocational training assistance, job seeking assistance.
The law came into effect in January 1st, 2007; however, voluntary social insurance wasvalid in January 1st, 2008 and unemployment insurance in January 1st, 2009.